|Arrival of the first Muslim missionaries in the Philippines at Simunul
Island, Tawi-Tawi Group, Southern Philippines.
|1521 March 17
|Western discovery of the Philippines by Ferdinand
Magellan, the voyage under the auspices of Spain's King Charles V.
|Ruy Lopez de Villalobos, departing from Navidad,
Mexico, reached Sarangani Island in Mindanao; named Leyte as Las Phelipinas
honor of then crown-prince Philip II of Spain.
Miguel Lopez de Lagazpi, departing from Navidad,Mexico,
reached Bohol and Cebu;
Start of the Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade that ended
in 1815 ;
Image of "The Holy Child" found in Cebu
|Publication of the Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas
Events of the Philippine Islands) by Dr. Antonio de Morga in Mexico.
|Tamblot Revolt in Bohol
|Foundation of the Sultante of Mindanao
|Establishment of the Santo Thomas University
|Spanish Prime Minister Valenzuela was vanished
|Dagohoy Revolt in Bohol
|1754 March 3
|Spanish treaty with Sultan Muhamad Alimudin
|Banishment of 2,070 Chinese from Manila
|British occupation of Manila
|Rebellion in Ilocos Province led by Diego Silang
|Restoration of Sultan Muhamad Alimudin to his
throne by the British.
|Expulsion of the Jesuits ordered (R. Decree,1768;
Papal Brief, 1769)
|1785 March 10
|Spain's Charles III created and granted the Royal
Philippine Company for the purpose of promoting Philippine commerce.
|Last state galleon left Manila for Acapulco,
|Last state galleon left Acapulco for Manila.
|1820 Oct. 9
|Massacre of foreigners in Manila and Cavite
|First Philippine bank was opened
|First Manila newspaper ( El Filantropo )
|Manila port was unrestrictedly opened to foreign
|Philippine deputies were excluded from the Spanish
|Chinese shops were first allowed to trade one
|Claveria's Spanish expedition against the Muslims
|Urbiztondo's Spanish expedition against the Muslims
|Iloilo, Panay port was opened to foreign trade.
|The Manila mint was established.
|Return of the Jesuits to the Philippines.
|1861 June 19
|Birth of Dr. Jose Rizal, Philippine national
|Opening of the Suez Canal for international maritime
|1869 March 22
|Birth of General Emilio Aguinaldo
|Birth of PhilippineNational
[The fuse of all future Philippine revolts]
|1872 Dec. 20
|Cavite revolt led by Sergeant Lamadrid, a criollo,
revolt was quickly crushed by Spanish governor General Rafael de Izquierdo.
|1873 Feb. 17
|Execution of Fathers Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos
and Jacinto Zamora, acronymed GOMBURZA, falsely implicated in the Cavite
|Malacampo's Spanish expedition led to the annexation
|Protocol of Sulu signed between Spain, Germany
and England recognizing Spainís rights in Sulu, in consideration for leasing
of the Sultan of Suluís possession in North Borneo; treaty ended centuriesof
|1878 Jan 22
|Sultan of Sulu leased North Borneo
(Sabah) to a Hong Kong-based British trading company.
|The Hong Kong-Manila submarine cable was laid
(via Cape Bolinao)
The establishment of the Manila water-supplyby the
Abolition of the Tribute and Poll Tax and establishment
of the cedula personal.
|Jose Rizal published the Noli Me Tangere (Touch
Me Not), a socio-historical novel about the Philippine society and ridiculing
the friars the way they run the country;
Petition to the Spanish Crown asking for expulsion
of the Chinese.
|1886 Sept. 24
|Investiture of Sultan Harun Narrasid in Manila.
|Spanish campaign against Muslim (Moro) Dato Utto;
Philippine Exhibition held in Madrid under the
auspices of the Spanish government.
|1887 April 16
|Colonel Juan Arolaís victory in Sulu Island;
capture of Maibun, Jolo
|1887 Aug 30
|The Commission of Faculty issued a report condemning
the Noli as heretical, scandalous and offensive to the Spanish administration
in the islands.
|Paris Exhibition; opening of the Eifel Tower
for the occasion. France abandoned Panama Canal project.
|Creation of municipalities in Christian provinces.
|Jose Rizal publishes the El Filibusterismo
a sequel to the Noli Me Tangere
|The Manila-Dagupan railway was opened to traffic.
|Rizal returned to the Philippines after a briefstay
in Hong Kong where his family was exiled for Rizal's activities; founded
Liga Filipina , a nationalist organization to promote liberal demands;
exiled to Dapitan upon order of Spanish Governor
|1892 July 7
|Founding of the Katipunan by Andres Bonifacioin
|The Marawi (Lanao) campaign against the Muslimsin
Mindanao by the Spaniards;
first arrival of the Benedictine friars in the
|1896 Aug. 19
|Katipunan , a nationalist organization,was
discovered by the Spanish authorities; Governor Blanco banishes 400 suspected
members; Spanish vigilantes panicked and killed hundreds of Filipinos.
|The Philippine Revolution, Phase
[The Katipunan Revolt]
|1896 Aug. 29
|Start of the Katipunan Revolt through
Bonifacio's Cry of Pugan Lawin and Balintawak openly declaring war against
|1896 Sept. 3
|Battle of Imus, Cavite between forces of GeneralEmilio
Aguinaldo and Spanish General Ernesto de Aguiree, giving victory to Aguinaldo.
|1896 Sept. 12
|Execution of 13 Cavite residents at the Plazade
Armas at Fort Felipe.
|1896 Nov. 10
|Battle of Binakayan between General Aguinaldo
and Spanish General Ramon Blanco, giving victory to Aguinaldo; RepublicanWilliam
McKinley elected as 25th U.S. President.
|1896 Dec. 3
|Arrival in Manila of General Camilo Garcia de
Polavieja, the "Christian General" who ruled the Philippines with a "crossin
one hand, sword in the other" .
|1896 Dec. 30
Execution of Jose Rizal by the Spaniards for allegedly
masterminding the Katipunan revolt; Cavite is recaptured by the
General Polaviejo was replaced by General Fernando
Primo de Rivera as Spanish Governor.
|First interisland submarine cable linking Manila
to Iloilo, Bacolod and Cebu was laid.
|1897 Feb. 16
|Battle of Anabu II, Cavite between forces of
General Aguinaldo and Spanish General Antonio Zabala, leading to victory
of General Aguinaldo.
|1897 March 4
|Inauguration of Republican William McKinley as
the 25th U.S. President .
|1897 March 22
|Tejeros Convention called by Andres Bonifacio;
voted to abolish the Katipunan in favor of a revolutionary form
of government known as the First Revolutionary Government or Tejeros Government.
|1897 April 15
|Governor-General Polavieja left Manila for Spain
|1897 April 15
|General Fernando Primo de Rivera y Sobremonte
replaced General Emilio Garcia de Polavieja as Governor-General of thePhilippine
|1897 April 27
|Arrest of the Bonifacio brothers, Andres and
Procopio for defiance of the election results of the Tejeros Convention.
|1897 May 10
|Execution of Andres Bonifacio for counter-revolutionary
activity by the men loyal to Aguinaldo.
|General Aguinaldo retreated to Biak-na-Bato afterhis
defeat in Cavite.
|1897 Dec. 1
|Aguinaldo forms Second Philippine Revolutionary
Government, known as the Biak-na-Bato Government naming himself as the
|Rift in Philippine-American
[Arrival of U.S. troops made Aguinaldo suspicious
of U.S. motive]
|1898 June 30
|Arrival of first expeditionary forces in Cavite
led by General Thomas Anderson.
|1898 July 23
|Aguinaldo sends a letter to Gen. thomas Andrson "rpotesting" the diembarkation
of U.S. troops in Philippine soil without prior notice.
|1898 July 25
|Arrival of General Wesley Merritt in Cavite to
assume general overall command of the U.S. expeditionary forces in thePhilippines.
|1898 Aug. 6
|Aguinaldo's appeal to the Superpowers for recognition
but to no avail.
|1898 Aug. 12
|Signing of the Protocol of Peace ordering suspension
of hostilities of the Spanish-American War and laying out the ground for
a future treaty [Treaty of Paris, later on] to "determine the control,
disposition, and government of the Philippines."
|1898 Aug. 13
|Surrender of the Spaniards to the Americans in
a prearranged sham land battle of Manila.
|1898 Aug. 14
|Occupation of Manila by the U.S. forces under
the command of General Wesley Merritt.
|1898 Aug. 16
|In Manila, General Wesley Merritt and Commodore
George Dewey received the cable informing them of the signing of the Protocol
|1898 Aug. 17
|General Wesley Merritt cabled Washington demanding
clarification on President McKinley's contradictory instructions of no
joint Filipino-American occupation of Manila while avoiding rapture with
|1898 Aug. 22
|General Wesley Merritt left for Paris, France
to brief and advise the U.S. peace commissioners on the Philippine situation;
replaced by General Elwell Otis as the overall commander of U.S. expeditionary
forces in the Philippines
|1898 Sept 26
|Appointment of General Antonio Luna as Director
and Assistant Secretary of War by General Aguinaldo
|1898 Sept. 15
|Malolos Congress opening; later to adopt a Constitutionof
the First Philippine Republic transforming the revolutionary government
to a republican form of government.
|1898 Oct. 1
|Philippine U.S. Consul Felipe Agoncillo visited
U.S. President William McKinley to plead for Philippine independence; President
McKinley refused Agoncillo's appeal on the grounds that Spain would object
and that the Philippines was not recognized by foreign powers; First joint
session of the U.S. and Spanish peace commissioners held in Paris, France.
|1898 Oct. 20
|Aguinaldo appointed Father Gregorio Aglipay as
|1898 Oct. 26
|President McKinley gave instruction to the U.S.
peace commissioners to demand for annexation of the whole Philippine archipelago.
|1898 Nov. 6
|Surrender of the Spaniards in Negros island to
|1898 Nov 25
|General Antonio Luna was promoted to Director of War with the position
of Chief of the Army.
|1898 Nov. 29
|Malolos Congress approved Constitution of the
First Philippine (Malolos) Republic.
|1898 Dec 5
|Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Visayas pledged allegiance
to the Malolos Government.
|1898 Dec. 10
|Signing of the Treaty of Paris for which Spain
renounced all claims to Cuba and allowed its independence, ceded control
of the islands of Puerto Rico and Guam to the U.S., and sold the Philippine
Islands for $20 Million; Philippine and Cuban delegates denied representation
during the negotiations.
|1898 Dec. 14
|Formation of the Development Association of AmericanVolunteers
(DAAV) formed by Astor batterymen in Manila.
|1898 Dec. 21
|President McKinley issued a proclamation calling
for a Philippine colonial policy of benevolent assimilation.
|1898 Dec. 23
|Surrender of Iloilo to the Filipinos by Spanish
General Diego de los Rios.
|1898 Dec. 24
|Evacuation of Panay and Cebu islands by the Spaniards.
|1898 Dec. 26
|Aguinaldo's cabinet resigns led by Apolinario
Mabini on disagreement over the contents of the Constitution of a republican
form of government; President McKinley cabled General Otis with instructions
to be made public that the U.S. aim is one of benevolent assimilation.
|1898 Dec. 28
|Arrival of American troops in Iloilo under the
command of General Marcus Miller; attempted to capture Iloilo but was refused
landing rights by the Filipinos.
|Hague Conference establishing the war code of
conduct among nations.
|Evacuation of Cotabato by the Spaniards
|1899 Jan. 1
|General Aguinaldo was declared president under
the new Philippine Republic; U.S. refused to recognize the new government.
|1899 Jan. 2
|Aguinaldo forms new cabinet by appointing Apolinario
Mabini as the cabinet head.
|1899 Jan 4
|Gen. Olwell Otis issued his own revised version of President McKinley's
"Benevolent Assimilation" Proclamation.
|1899 Jan. 17
|Election of Raymondo Melliza as Mayor of Iloilo,
|1899 Jan 20
|Pres. McKinley issued his instructions to the First Philippine Commission,
otherwise known as the Schurman Commission.
|1899 Jan. 21
|Promulgation of the Malolos Constitution by Aguinaldo.
|1899 Jan. 23
|Inauguration of the First Philippine (Malolos)
Republic formally establishing the First Philippine Republic; inauguration
of General Aguinaldo as president.
[War for Independence (1899-1902)]
|1899 Feb. 4
|Firing of the first shot by Private William Grayson,
a U.S. soldier, triggering a war.
|1899 Feb. 6
|U.S. Congress ratified the Treaty of Paris ina
tightly contested voting, one vote more than the two-thirds vote required
(57 yes; 27 nays)
|1899 Feb. 22
|American occupation of Cebu City; fall of Iloilo
to the Americans
|1899 March 19
|The Queen Regent of Spain ratified the Treaty
|1899 March 4
|Arrival of the First Philippine Commission in
Manila headed by Jacob Gould Schurman; stayed in the Philippines for six
|1899 April 4
|First Proclamation of the First Philippine Commission was addressed
to the Filipino people. The proclamation began with these ominous words:
"The supremacy of the United States muct and will be enforced throughout
every paprt of the Archipelago and those who resist it can accomplish no
end other than their own ruin."
|1899 April 11
|Exchange of treaty ratifications in Washington
by both Spain and the U.S. thereby making the treaty international binding
and officially ending the Spanish-American War.
|1899 April 15
|Mabini issued a manifesto debunking McKinley's
and the Schurman Commission's claims of sovereignty over the Philippines,
and urged the fellow-countrymen to continue their struggle for independence.
|1899 April 24 -27
|Battle of Bagbag/Calumpit defended by General
Antonio Luna and his men against combined U.S. forces led by General Loyd
Wheaton, Gen. Arthur McArthur, and Gen. Henry Lawton.
|1899 April 28
|Pedro Paterno Cabinet offered peace terms, in behalf of Gen. Aguinaldo,
to Gen. Elwell Otis but was rejected.
|1899 April 29
|Excommunication of Father Gregorio Aglipay
by Manila Archbishop Bernardino Nozaleda for his nationalistic activities;
start of religious schism.
|1899 May 2
|Major Manuel Arguelles and Lieutenant Jose Bernal
meet with General Elwell Otis for the second time to negotiate peace terms
for General Aguinaldo.
|1899 May 5
|U.S. Secretary of State John Hay cabled the Schurman
Commission, its commissioners, who were then in Manila, to offer autonomy
to the Filipinos under the U.S. sovereignty.
|1899 May 7
|Aguinaldo formed a new cabinet replacing Apolinario
Mabini for Pedro Paterno as cabinet president
|1899 May 20
|Admiral Dewey aboard the USS Olympia left
Manila for the United States
|1899 May 23
|Evacuation of Zamboanga by the Spaniards.
|1899 June 2
Spanish forces in Baler, Tayabas surrendered to the
Pedro Paterno, head of the Peace Cabinet, issued
a proclamation calling on the people to continue their independence struggle.
Near the end of the manifesto, it declared:
"Within the American nation itself a great
political party asks for the recognition of our rights, and Divine Providence
watches over the justice of our cause."
|1899 June 5
|Assassination of General Antonio Luna by men
loyal to General Aguinaldo's men.
|General Elwell Otis ordered the formation of
local governments to be directed by Filipinos under the supervision of
U.S. military advisers.
|1899 July 3
|Opening of public schools with American, Spanish
and Filipino teachers.
|1899 July 19
|Substitution of the Spanish legal system with
the American system, Spanish language retained as means of communication.
|1899 Aug. 20
|Treaty signed between General John Bates and
Sultan Jamalul Kiram II which recognized the Sultanate rights in Sultanís
region under the sovereignty of the U.S.
|1899 Sept 3
|Jose Palma's lyrics of the Philippine National Anthem was first published
in the La Independencia.
|1899 Oct. 23
|Father Gregorio Aglipay announced his aim for
the nationalization of the Catholic Church.
|1899 Nov. 12
|Series of military defeats forced General EmilioAguinaldo
to dissolve regular army and establish decentralized guerrilla commands.
|1899 Nov. 16
|American occupation of Zamboanga.
|1899 Dec. 2
|Battle of Tirad Pass killing General Gregorio
|1899 Dec. 19
|General Henry Lawton was killed in the Battle
of San Mateo against the Filipino forces led by General Lucerio Geronimo.
|1899 Dec. 31
|General Vicente Lukban appointed as Governor
of Samar under the Philippine Republic.
|1900 Jan. 2
|Arrival of Monsignor Placido Chapelle, U.S. apostolic
delegate to the Philippines
|1900 March 16
|Appointment of the Second Philippine Commission,
headed by William Howard Taft.
|1900 March 17
|Occupation of Bohol by American forces led by
Major Henry Hale.
|1900 May 5
|Gen. Otis relinquises command of Philippine U.S. land forces;
Gen. Arthur McArthur takes over command.
|1900 June 3
|Arrival of the Taft Commission in Manila.
|1900 Sept. 1
|The Philippine (Taft) Commission became the colonial
|1901 Jan 7
|Apolinario Mabini, together with General Artemio
Ricarte, was exiled to Guam for refusing to take oath of allegiance to
the Americans upon orders of Civil Governor William Howard Taft.
|1901 Feb. 2
|Federalistas (Partido Federal) formally
inaugurated, headed by Trinidad-Pardo de Tavera, Benito Legarda, and other
surrender of the Panay forces to the Americans.
|1901 March 8
|Battle of Lonoy where Captain Gregorio Caseñas
was ambushed and killed by the U.S. soldiers in Lonoy, Jagna when his location
was betrayed and disclosed to the Americans by a native traitor.
|1901 March 23
|Capture of General Emilio Aguinaldo by Colonel
Frederick Funston in Palanan, Isabela.
|1901 April 1
|General Aguinaldo took oath of allegiance to
the United States in Manila.
|1901 April 20
|Appointment of Anecito Clarin as Provincial Governor
|1901 June 20
|U.S. proclaimed the establishment of civilian
authority in the Philippines.
|1901 July 4
|William Howard Taft established the first complete
civilian administration in the Philippines; Gen. McArtur relinquishes command;
Major General Adna Chaffee assumes command under the supervision of the
|1901 July 18
|Creation of the Philippine Constabulary by the Philippine Commission
Act 175. Capt. Henry T. Allen was appointed as chief and Capt. D.J. Baker
as assistant chief.
|1901 July 31
|General Miguel Malvar issued a manifesto announcing
that he had assumed the position of Supreme Chief.
|1901 July 17
|Restoration of military control of the provinces of Batangas, Bohol
|1901 Sept. 6
|Theodore Roosevelt became the 26th president
of the United States, succeeding President McKinley who was incapacitated
by an assassin's bullet.
|1901 Aug. 21
|Steamship Thomas landed in Manila with
540 first Thomasites teachers and educators.
|1901 Sept. 14
|President McKinley died eight days after being
shot by Leon Czolgosz.
|1901 Sept. 26
|Balangiga incident where American soldiers of
9th U.S. Infantry, Company "C" were massacred by men of General Vicente
Lukban aided by the town Presidente Pedro Abayan.
|Surrender of Cebu guerilla forces under General
Arcadio Maxilom to the Americans.
|1901 Nov 4
|Enactment of The Treason Act of 1901, otherwise
known as the Sedition Law, by the Philippine Commission, providing
for punishment to Filipinos supporting independence movements.
|1901 Dec. 23
|Surrender of Bohol guerilla forces led by Colonel
Pedro Samson to the Americans.
|General Franklin Bellís Batangas scorched-earth
campaign causing destruction of agricultural crops, livestocks causing
famine and mass extermination of civilians.
|1902 Feb. 27
|Capture of General Vicente Lukban, the mastermind
of the Balangiga incident.
|1902 March 17
|Start of court-martial of Major Littleton "Tony"
Waller for atrocities committed in Samar campaign held in Manila.
|1902 April 16
|Surrender of General Miguel Malvar, the self-proclaimed
successor of General Aguinaldo, to the Americans.
|Governor Taft went to Rome to negotiate for the
purchase of friar's lands
|1902 May 2
|First pitched battles between American forces and the Moros when the
Ameircans took the Moro cottas at Binadayan and Pandapatan at Lanao.
|1902 July 1
|U.S. Congress passes the Philippine Bill or the
"Organic Act," a law providing for colonial administration of the Philippine
|1902 July 4
|President Theodore Roosevelt officially ended
the Philippine-American War by issuing the Peace Proclamation and Granting
of Pardon/Amnesty to the "Insurrectionists"
|1902 Aug. 3
|Official founding of the Philippine Independent
Church by Bishop Gregorio Aglipay.
|1902 Nov. 2
|Arrival of Monsignor G.B. Guidi, papal delegate,
|1902 Nov 12
|Passage of the Brigandage Act or Ley de Bandolerismo.
|1903 June 1
|Passing of the Reconcentration Act by the Philippine Commssion.
|Maguindanao (Cotabato) Muslim resistance period
against the Americans.
|Jolo (Sulu) Muslims resistance period against
|American campaign led by Governor Leonard Wood
against Panglima Hassan, a Moro leader in Jolo (Sulu) Province.
|General Artemio Ricarte was banished to Hong
Kong after his release from Guam exile for his continued refusal to take
the oath of allegiance to the U.S.
|American campaign led by Captain Carl Riechman
against the Cotabato Moros led by Datu Ali.
|1903 May 13
|Apolinario Mabini died in Manila at the age of
|Archbishop Nozaleda relinquished his positionin
|1903 June 1
|Passing of the Philippine Commission Act No.787
constituting the Muslim (Moro) provinces.
|First issue of the Philippine peso ("Conant")to
|1903 Sept. 2
|Moro Province Legislative Council organized.
|Unilateral abrogation of the Bates Treaty by
the U.S. on the grounds that the Sultan had ineffective control of the
Muslims (Moros) and that the treaty was a hindrance to effective colonial
administration of the area.
|Governor Taft, appointed as U.S. Secretary of
War, left Manila for the U.S.; succeeded by Luke E. Wright as Civil Governor;
arrival of Monsignor J.J. Harty, appointed as Archbishop of Manila.
|1905 Feb. 6
|Arrival of Monsignor Ambrogio Aguis, papal delegate,
|1905 March 22
|Passing of Philippine Commission Act No. 1309
imposing compulsory military service to able-bodied citizens' and ordering
each to give five days a month to hunt for brigands.
|Passing of Philippine Commission. Act No. 1123
making English as the official language of the land.
|1906 March 5
|Battle of Bud Dajo in Sulu led by Colonel Duncan
against the Jolo Muslims.
|1906 April 16
|General Tasker Bliss replaced General Leonard
Wood as Military Governor of Jolo.
|1907 Oct. 16
|Opening of the Philippine Assembly attended by
William Howard Taft, then U.S. Secretary of War.
|General John Pershing was appointed as Military
Governor of Jolo (Sulu) Province
|1913 June 11
|Battle of Bud Bagsak in Sulu led by General Pershing
|1913 Oct 24
|Battle of Bud Talipao.