Chronology of  Historical Events  

Events Leading to the Philippine-AmericanWar  

Chronology Link
    [By Randolf Arguelles -UCLA Dept. of History]

Pre-Hispanic Period
1380 Arrival of the first Muslim missionaries in the Philippines at Simunul Island, Tawi-Tawi Group, Southern Philippines.
Hispanic Period 
1521 March 17  Western discovery of the Philippines by Ferdinand Magellan, the voyage under the auspices of Spain's King Charles V. 
1543  Ruy Lopez de Villalobos, departing from Navidad, Mexico, reached Sarangani Island in Mindanao; named Leyte as Las Phelipinas in honor of then crown-prince Philip II of Spain. 
1565
  • Miguel Lopez de Lagazpi, departing from Navidad,Mexico, reached Bohol and Cebu;
  • Start of the Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade that ended in 1815 ;
  • Image of "The Holy Child" found in Cebu
1609  Publication of the Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas (Historical Events of the Philippine Islands) by Dr. Antonio de Morga in Mexico. 
1621  Tamblot Revolt in Bohol 
1640 Foundation of the Sultante of Mindanao
1645  Establishment of the Santo Thomas University 
1684  Spanish Prime Minister Valenzuela was vanished to Cavite 
1744-1829  Dagohoy Revolt in Bohol 
1754 March 3  Spanish treaty with Sultan Muhamad Alimudin 
1755  Banishment of 2,070 Chinese from Manila 
1762-1763  British occupation of Manila 
1762  Rebellion in Ilocos Province led by Diego Silang 
1763  Restoration of Sultan Muhamad Alimudin to his throne by the British. 
1768  Expulsion of the Jesuits ordered (R. Decree,1768; Papal Brief, 1769) 
1785 March 10  Spain's Charles III created and granted the Royal Philippine Company for the purpose of promoting Philippine commerce.
1811  Last state galleon left Manila for Acapulco, Mexico. 
1815  Last state galleon left Acapulco for Manila. 
1820 Oct. 9  Massacre of foreigners in Manila and Cavite 
1830  First Philippine bank was opened 
1822  First Manila newspaper ( El Filantropo ) was published. 
1834  Manila port was unrestrictedly opened to foreign trade. 
1837  Philippine deputies were excluded from the Spanish Parliament 
1843  Chinese shops were first allowed to trade one qual terms. 
1844  Claveria's Spanish expedition against the Muslims (Moros) 
1851  Urbiztondo's Spanish expedition against the Muslims (Moros). 
1855  Iloilo, Panay port was opened to foreign trade. 
1857  The Manila mint was established. 
1859  Return of the Jesuits to the Philippines. 
1861 June 19  Birth of Dr. Jose Rizal, Philippine national hero 
1869  Opening of the Suez Canal for international maritime traffic 
1869 March 22  Birth of General Emilio Aguinaldo 


Birth of PhilippineNational Consciousness 
[The fuse of all future Philippine revolts] 
1872 Dec. 20  Cavite revolt led by Sergeant Lamadrid, a criollo, revolt was quickly crushed by Spanish governor General Rafael de Izquierdo. 
1873 Feb. 17  Execution of Fathers Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos and Jacinto Zamora, acronymed GOMBURZA, falsely implicated in the Cavite uprising. 
1876  Malacampo's Spanish expedition led to the annexation of Jolo. 
1877 March  Protocol of Sulu signed between Spain, Germany and England recognizing Spainís rights in Sulu, in consideration for leasing of the Sultan of Suluís possession in North Borneo; treaty ended centuriesof hostilities. 
1878 Jan 22 Sultan of Sulu leased North Borneo (Sabah) to a Hong Kong-based British trading company. 
1880  The Hong Kong-Manila submarine cable was laid (via Cape Bolinao) 
1884 
  • The establishment of the Manila water-supplyby the "Carriedo" endowment; 
  • Abolition of the Tribute and Poll Tax and establishment of the cedula personal. 
1886  Jose Rizal published the Noli Me Tangere (Touch Me Not), a socio-historical novel about the Philippine society and ridiculing the friars the way they run the country; 
Petition to the Spanish Crown asking for expulsion of the Chinese. 
1886 Sept. 24  Investiture of Sultan Harun Narrasid in Manila. 
1887  Spanish campaign against Muslim (Moro) Dato Utto;
Philippine Exhibition held in Madrid under the auspices of the Spanish government. 
1887 April 16  Colonel Juan Arolaís victory in Sulu Island; capture of Maibun, Jolo
1887 Aug 30  The Commission of Faculty issued a report condemning the Noli as heretical, scandalous and offensive to the Spanish administration in the islands. 
1889  Paris Exhibition; opening of the Eifel Tower for the occasion. France abandoned Panama Canal project. 
1890  Creation of municipalities in Christian provinces. 
1890 Dec.  Jose Rizal publishes the El Filibusterismo (TheSubversive), a sequel to the Noli Me Tangere 
1891  The Manila-Dagupan railway was opened to traffic. 
1892 June  Rizal returned to the Philippines after a briefstay in Hong Kong where his family was exiled for Rizal's activities; founded La Liga Filipina , a nationalist organization to promote liberal demands;
exiled to Dapitan upon order of Spanish Governor Eulogio Despujol. 
1892 July 7  Founding of the Katipunan by Andres Bonifacioin Tondo, Manila 
1895  The Marawi (Lanao) campaign against the Muslimsin Mindanao by the Spaniards; 
first arrival of the Benedictine friars in the Philippines. 
1896 
1896 Aug. 19  Katipunan , a nationalist organization,was discovered by the Spanish authorities; Governor Blanco banishes 400 suspected members; Spanish vigilantes panicked and killed hundreds of Filipinos. 


The Philippine Revolution, Phase I 
[The Katipunan Revolt] 
1896 Aug. 29  Start of the Katipunan Revolt through Bonifacio's Cry of Pugan Lawin and Balintawak openly declaring war against Spain. 
1896 Sept. 3  Battle of Imus, Cavite between forces of GeneralEmilio Aguinaldo and Spanish General Ernesto de Aguiree, giving victory to Aguinaldo. 
1896 Sept. 12  Execution of 13 Cavite residents at the Plazade Armas at Fort Felipe. 
1896 Nov. 10  Battle of Binakayan between General Aguinaldo and Spanish General Ramon Blanco, giving victory to Aguinaldo; RepublicanWilliam McKinley elected as 25th U.S. President. 
1896 Dec. 3 Arrival in Manila of General Camilo Garcia de Polavieja, the "Christian General" who ruled the Philippines with a "crossin one hand, sword in the other"
1896 Dec. 30 
  • Execution of Jose Rizal by the Spaniards for allegedly masterminding the Katipunan revolt; Cavite is recaptured by the Spaniards; 
  • General Polaviejo was replaced by General Fernando Primo de Rivera as Spanish Governor. 
1897 
1897  First interisland submarine cable linking Manila to Iloilo, Bacolod and Cebu was laid. 
1897 Feb. 16  Battle of Anabu II, Cavite between forces of General Aguinaldo and Spanish General Antonio Zabala, leading to victory of General Aguinaldo. 
1897 March 4  Inauguration of Republican William McKinley as the 25th U.S. President .
1897 March 22  Tejeros Convention called by Andres Bonifacio; voted to abolish the Katipunan in favor of a revolutionary form of government known as the First Revolutionary Government or Tejeros Government. 
1897 April 15  Governor-General Polavieja left Manila for Spain 
1897 April 15  General Fernando Primo de Rivera y Sobremonte replaced General Emilio Garcia de Polavieja as Governor-General of thePhilippine Islands. 
1897 April 27  Arrest of the Bonifacio brothers, Andres and Procopio for defiance of the election results of the Tejeros Convention. 
1897 May 10  Execution of Andres Bonifacio for counter-revolutionary activity by the men loyal to Aguinaldo. 
1897 June  General Aguinaldo retreated to Biak-na-Bato afterhis defeat in Cavite. 
1897 Dec. 1  Aguinaldo forms Second Philippine Revolutionary Government, known as the Biak-na-Bato Government naming himself as the President. 


Biak-na-Bato Truce 
[Cessation of Revolutionary Hostilities] 
1897 Dec. 15  Signing of the Pact of Biak-na-Bato which called for cessation of hostilities between the Filipinos and the Spanish colonial rule. 
1897 Dec. 27  General Emilio Aguinaldo went on exile to Hong Kong in compliance with the Pact of Biak-na-Bato signed between his revolutionary government and the Spaniards. 
1898 
1898 Jan  Aguinaldo forms Junta in Hong Kong 
1898 Feb. 15  Explosion sank the battleship USS Maine in Havana Harbor 
1898 March  Emilio Jacinto revived the rebellion against the Spaniards in the absence of Aguinaldo who was in exile in Hong Kongi n compliance to the Biak-na-Bato truce. 
1898 April  General Basilio Davila Agusti replaced General Fernando Primo de Rivera as the Spanish Governor-General of the Philippines. 
1898 April 3  Uprising in Cebu Island in the Visayas. 
1898 April 10  Governor-General Basilio Agusti.y Davila replaced Governor-General Fernando Primo de Rivera as Spanish military governor of the Philippines 
1898 April 25  U.S. Congress declares war with Spain; formal outbreak of the Spanish-American War. 
1898 May 1  U.S. Commodore George Dewey's fleet defeated the Spanish fleet led by Admiral Patricio Montojo in the Battle of Manila Bay. 
1898 May 19  General Aguinaldo returned to Manila aboard U.S. warship USS McCullock ; immediately resumed revolutionary activities against the Spaniards. 


Philippine Revolution, Phase II 
[Resumption of (Spain-Filipino) Revolutionary Hostilities] 
1898 May 24  Aguinaldo established dictatorial government after his return from his Hong Kong exile. 
1898 May 25  First installment of U.S. volunteer troops commanded by General Thomas Anderson sailed from San Francisco, CA; arrived in Cavite shores on June 30, 1898. 
1898 May 31  Pedro Paterno issued a manifesto in favor of the Spaniards announcing political reforms and calling for Filipinos to help "our old ally Spain". 
1898 June 12  General Emilio Aguinaldo declared Philippine independence from Spain, witnessed by Colonel L.M. Johnson of the U.S.Army Artillery; Commodore George Dewey declined to attend the ceremonies;  arrival of the German Asiatic Fleet in Manila Bay under the command of Admiral Otto von Diederichs. 
1898 June 14  President William McKinley's administration decides not to return the Philippines to Spain.
1898 June 18 General Aguinaldo issued a decree providing for: 
a) reorganization of local governments that were already freed from Spanish control,
b) election of delegates from each province to constitute the Revolutionary Congress. 
1898 June 23  Aguinaldo issued decree ending his Dictatorial Government; promulgated the Constitution of a Revolutionary Government; created a Revolutionary Congress (known as the Malolos Congress) for advisory purposes. 


Rift in Philippine-American Relations 
[Arrival of U.S. troops made Aguinaldo suspicious of U.S. motive] 
1898 June 30  Arrival of first expeditionary forces in Cavite led by General Thomas Anderson. 
1898 July 23 Aguinaldo sends a letter to Gen. thomas Andrson "rpotesting" the diembarkation of U.S. troops in Philippine soil without prior notice.
1898 July 25  Arrival of General Wesley Merritt in Cavite to assume general overall command of the U.S. expeditionary forces in thePhilippines. 
1898 Aug. 6  Aguinaldo's appeal to the Superpowers for recognition but to no avail.
1898 Aug. 12  Signing of the Protocol of Peace ordering suspension of hostilities of the Spanish-American War and laying out the ground for a future treaty [Treaty of Paris, later on] to "determine the control, disposition, and government of the Philippines." 
1898 Aug. 13  Surrender of the Spaniards to the Americans in a prearranged sham land battle of Manila. 
1898 Aug. 14  Occupation of Manila by the U.S. forces under the command of General Wesley Merritt. 
1898 Aug. 16  In Manila, General Wesley Merritt and Commodore George Dewey received the cable informing them of the signing of the Protocol of Peace. 
1898 Aug. 17  General Wesley Merritt cabled Washington demanding clarification on President McKinley's contradictory instructions of no joint Filipino-American occupation of Manila while avoiding rapture with the Filipinos. 
1898 Aug. 22  General Wesley Merritt left for Paris, France to brief and advise the U.S. peace commissioners on the Philippine situation; replaced by General Elwell Otis as the overall commander of U.S. expeditionary forces in the Philippines 
1898 Sept 26 Appointment of General Antonio Luna as Director and Assistant Secretary of War by General Aguinaldo 
1898 Sept. 15 Malolos Congress opening; later to adopt a Constitutionof the First Philippine Republic transforming the revolutionary government to a republican form of government. 
1898 Oct. 1  Philippine U.S. Consul Felipe Agoncillo visited U.S. President William McKinley to plead for Philippine independence; President McKinley refused Agoncillo's appeal on the grounds that Spain would object and that the Philippines was not recognized by foreign powers; First joint session of the U.S. and Spanish peace commissioners held in Paris, France. 
1898 Oct. 20  Aguinaldo appointed Father Gregorio Aglipay as Military Vicar-General. 
1898 Oct. 26  President McKinley gave instruction to the U.S. peace commissioners to demand for annexation of the whole Philippine archipelago. 
1898 Nov. 6  Surrender of the Spaniards in Negros island to the Filipinos. 
1898 Nov 25 General Antonio Luna was promoted to Director of War with the position of Chief of the Army.
1898 Nov. 29  Malolos Congress approved Constitution of the First Philippine (Malolos) Republic. 
1898 Dec 5 Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Visayas pledged allegiance to the Malolos Government.
1898 Dec. 10  Signing of the Treaty of Paris for which Spain renounced all claims to Cuba and allowed its independence, ceded control of the islands of Puerto Rico and Guam to the U.S., and sold the Philippine Islands for $20 Million; Philippine and Cuban delegates denied representation during the negotiations. 
1898 Dec. 14  Formation of the Development Association of AmericanVolunteers (DAAV) formed by Astor batterymen in Manila. 
1898 Dec. 21  President McKinley issued a proclamation calling for a Philippine colonial policy of benevolent assimilation.
1898 Dec. 23  Surrender of Iloilo to the Filipinos by Spanish General Diego de los Rios. 
1898 Dec. 24  Evacuation of Panay and Cebu islands by the Spaniards. 
1898 Dec. 26  Aguinaldo's cabinet resigns led by Apolinario Mabini on disagreement over the contents of the Constitution of a republican form of government; President McKinley cabled General Otis with instructions to be made public that the U.S. aim is one of benevolent assimilation. 
1898 Dec. 28  Arrival of American troops in Iloilo under the command of General Marcus Miller; attempted to capture Iloilo but was refused landing rights by the Filipinos. 
1899 
1899  Hague Conference establishing the war code of conduct among nations. 
1899 Jan.  Evacuation of Cotabato by the Spaniards 
1899 Jan. 1  General Aguinaldo was declared president under the new Philippine Republic; U.S. refused to recognize the new government. 
1899 Jan. 2 Aguinaldo forms new cabinet by appointing Apolinario Mabini as the cabinet head. 
1899 Jan 4 Gen. Olwell Otis issued his own revised version of President McKinley's "Benevolent Assimilation" Proclamation.
1899 Jan. 17  Election of Raymondo Melliza as Mayor of Iloilo, Panay. 
1899 Jan 20 Pres. McKinley issued his instructions to the First Philippine Commission, otherwise known as the Schurman Commission.
1899 Jan. 21  Promulgation of the Malolos Constitution by Aguinaldo. 
1899 Jan. 23  Inauguration of the First Philippine (Malolos) Republic formally establishing the First Philippine Republic; inauguration of General Aguinaldo as president. 


The Philippine-AmericanWar 
[War for Independence (1899-1902)] 
1899 Feb. 4  Firing of the first shot by Private William Grayson, a U.S. soldier, triggering a war. 
1899 Feb. 6  U.S. Congress ratified the Treaty of Paris ina tightly contested voting, one vote more than the two-thirds vote required (57 yes; 27 nays) 
1899 Feb. 22  American occupation of Cebu City; fall of Iloilo to the Americans 
1899 March 19  The Queen Regent of Spain ratified the Treaty of Paris. 
1899 March 4  Arrival of the First Philippine Commission in Manila headed by Jacob Gould Schurman; stayed in the Philippines for six months. 
1899 April 4 First Proclamation of the First Philippine Commission was addressed to the Filipino people. The proclamation began with these ominous words:

"The supremacy of the United States muct and will be enforced throughout every paprt of the Archipelago and those who resist it can accomplish no end other than their own ruin."

1899 April 11  Exchange of treaty ratifications in Washington by both Spain and the U.S. thereby making the treaty international binding and officially ending the Spanish-American War. 
1899 April 15  Mabini issued a manifesto debunking McKinley's and the Schurman Commission's claims of sovereignty over the Philippines, and urged the fellow-countrymen to continue their struggle for independence. 
1899 April 24 -27 Battle of Bagbag/Calumpit defended by General Antonio Luna and his men against combined U.S. forces led by General Loyd Wheaton, Gen. Arthur McArthur, and Gen. Henry Lawton.
1899 April 28 Pedro Paterno Cabinet offered peace terms, in behalf of Gen. Aguinaldo, to Gen. Elwell Otis but was rejected.
1899 April 29  Excommunication  of Father Gregorio Aglipay by Manila Archbishop Bernardino Nozaleda for his nationalistic activities; start of religious schism.
1899 May 2  Major Manuel Arguelles and Lieutenant Jose Bernal meet with General Elwell Otis for the second time to negotiate peace terms for General Aguinaldo. 
1899 May 5  U.S. Secretary of State John Hay cabled the Schurman Commission, its commissioners, who were then in Manila, to offer autonomy to the Filipinos under the U.S. sovereignty.
1899 May 7  Aguinaldo formed a new cabinet replacing Apolinario Mabini for Pedro Paterno as cabinet president 
1899 May 20  Admiral Dewey aboard the USS Olympia left Manila for the United States 
1899 May 23  Evacuation of Zamboanga by the Spaniards. 
1899 June 2 
  • Spanish forces in Baler, Tayabas surrendered to the Filipino forces. 

  • Pedro Paterno, head of the Peace Cabinet, issued a proclamation calling on the people to continue their independence struggle. Near the end of the manifesto, it declared:

    "Within the American nation itself a great political party asks for the recognition of our rights, and Divine Providence watches over the justice of our cause."

1899 June 5  Assassination of General Antonio Luna by men loyal to General Aguinaldo's men. 
1899 July  General Elwell Otis ordered the formation of local governments to be directed by Filipinos under the supervision of U.S. military advisers. 
1899 July 3  Opening of public schools with American, Spanish and Filipino teachers. 
1899 July 19  Substitution of the Spanish legal system with the American system, Spanish language retained as means of communication. 
1899 Aug. 20  Treaty signed between General John Bates and Sultan Jamalul Kiram II which recognized the Sultanate rights in Sultanís region under the sovereignty of the U.S. 
1899 Sept 3 Jose Palma's lyrics of the Philippine National Anthem was first published in the La Independencia.
1899 Oct. 23  Father Gregorio Aglipay announced his aim for the nationalization of the Catholic Church. 
1899 Nov. 12  Series of military defeats forced General EmilioAguinaldo to dissolve regular army and establish decentralized guerrilla commands. 
1899 Nov. 16 American occupation of Zamboanga. 
1899 Dec. 2  Battle of Tirad Pass killing General Gregorio del Pilar. 
1899 Dec. 19 General Henry Lawton was killed in the Battle of San Mateo against the Filipino forces led by General Lucerio Geronimo. 
1899 Dec. 31  General Vicente Lukban appointed as Governor of Samar under the Philippine Republic. 
1900 
1900 Jan. 2  Arrival of Monsignor Placido Chapelle, U.S. apostolic delegate to the Philippines 
1900 March 16  Appointment of the Second Philippine Commission, headed by William Howard Taft. 
1900 March 17  Occupation of Bohol by American forces led by Major Henry Hale. 
1900 May 5 Gen. Otis relinquises command of Philippine U.S. land forces;  Gen. Arthur McArthur takes over command.
1900 June 3  Arrival of the Taft Commission in Manila. 
1900 Sept. 1 The Philippine (Taft) Commission became the colonial legislative body
1901 
1901 Jan 7  Apolinario Mabini, together with General Artemio Ricarte, was exiled to Guam for refusing to take oath of allegiance to the Americans upon orders of Civil Governor William Howard Taft. 
1901 Feb. 2  Federalistas (Partido Federal) formally inaugurated, headed by Trinidad-Pardo de Tavera, Benito Legarda, and other ilustrados; surrender of the Panay forces to the Americans. 
1901 March 8  Battle of Lonoy where Captain Gregorio Caseñas was ambushed and killed by the U.S. soldiers in Lonoy, Jagna when his location was betrayed and disclosed to the Americans by a native traitor.
1901 March 23  Capture of General Emilio Aguinaldo by Colonel Frederick Funston in Palanan, Isabela. 
1901 April 1  General Aguinaldo took oath of allegiance to the United States in Manila. 
1901 April 20  Appointment of Anecito Clarin as Provincial Governor of Bohol. 
1901 June 20 U.S. proclaimed the establishment of civilian authority in the Philippines.
1901 July 4  William Howard Taft established the first complete civilian administration in the Philippines; Gen. McArtur relinquishes command; Major General Adna Chaffee assumes command under the supervision of the Civil Governor. 
1901 July 18 Creation of the Philippine Constabulary by the Philippine Commission Act 175. Capt. Henry T. Allen was appointed as chief and Capt. D.J. Baker as assistant chief.
1901 July 31  General Miguel Malvar issued a manifesto announcing that he had assumed the position of Supreme Chief. 
1901 July 17 Restoration of military control of the provinces of Batangas, Bohol and Cebu.
1901 Sept. 6  Theodore Roosevelt became the 26th president of the United States, succeeding President McKinley who was incapacitated by an assassin's bullet. 
1901 Aug. 21  Steamship Thomas landed in Manila with 540 first Thomasites teachers and educators. 
1901 Sept. 14  President McKinley died eight days after being shot by Leon Czolgosz. 
1901 Sept. 26  Balangiga incident where American soldiers of 9th U.S. Infantry, Company "C" were massacred by men of General Vicente Lukban aided by the town Presidente Pedro Abayan. 
1901 Oct.  Surrender of Cebu guerilla forces under General Arcadio Maxilom to the Americans. 
1901 Nov 4 Enactment of The Treason Act of 1901, otherwise known as the Sedition Law,  by the Philippine Commission, providing for punishment to Filipinos supporting independence movements. 
1901 Dec. 23  Surrender of Bohol guerilla forces led by Colonel Pedro Samson to the Americans. 
1902 
1902 Jan.  General Franklin Bellís Batangas scorched-earth campaign causing destruction of agricultural crops, livestocks causing famine and mass extermination of civilians. 
1902 Feb. 27  Capture of General Vicente Lukban, the mastermind of the Balangiga incident. 
1902 March 17  Start of court-martial of Major Littleton "Tony" Waller for atrocities committed in Samar campaign held in Manila. 
1902 April 16  Surrender of General Miguel Malvar, the self-proclaimed successor of General Aguinaldo, to the Americans. 
1902 June  Governor Taft went to Rome to negotiate for the purchase of friar's lands 
1902 May 2 First pitched battles between American forces and the Moros when the Ameircans took the Moro cottas at Binadayan and Pandapatan at Lanao.
1902 July 1  U.S. Congress passes the Philippine Bill or the "Organic Act," a law providing for colonial administration of the Philippine Islands. 
1902 July 4  President Theodore Roosevelt officially ended the Philippine-American War by issuing the Peace Proclamation and Granting of Pardon/Amnesty to the "Insurrectionists" 
1902 Aug. 3  Official founding of the Philippine Independent Church by Bishop Gregorio Aglipay. 
1902 Nov. 2  Arrival of Monsignor G.B. Guidi, papal delegate, in Manila 
1902 Nov 12 Passage of the Brigandage Act or Ley de Bandolerismo.
1903 
1903 June 1 Passing of the Reconcentration Act by the Philippine Commssion.
1903-1912  Maguindanao (Cotabato) Muslim resistance period against the Americans. 
1903-1913  Jolo (Sulu) Muslims resistance period against the Americans. 
1903  American campaign led by Governor Leonard Wood against Panglima Hassan, a Moro leader in Jolo (Sulu) Province. 
1903 Feb  General Artemio Ricarte was banished to Hong Kong after his release from Guam exile for his continued refusal to take the oath of allegiance to the U.S. 
1903 March  American campaign led by Captain Carl Riechman against the Cotabato Moros led by Datu Ali. 
1903 May 13 Apolinario Mabini died in Manila at the age of 39. 
1903 June Archbishop Nozaleda relinquished his positionin Manila. 
1903 June 1  Passing of the Philippine Commission Act No.787 constituting the Muslim (Moro) provinces. 
1903 July  First issue of the Philippine peso ("Conant")to the public. 
1903 Sept. 2  Moro Province Legislative Council organized. 
1904 
1904  Unilateral abrogation of the Bates Treaty by the U.S. on the grounds that the Sultan had ineffective control of the Muslims (Moros) and that the treaty was a hindrance to effective colonial administration of the area.
1904 Jan.  Governor Taft, appointed as U.S. Secretary of War, left Manila for the U.S.; succeeded by Luke E. Wright as Civil Governor; arrival of Monsignor J.J. Harty, appointed as Archbishop of Manila. 
1905 
1905 Feb. 6  Arrival of Monsignor Ambrogio Aguis, papal delegate, in Manila. 
1905 March 22  Passing of Philippine Commission Act No. 1309 imposing compulsory military service to able-bodied citizens' and ordering each to give five days a month to hunt for brigands. 
1906 
1906  Passing of Philippine Commission. Act No. 1123 making English as the official language of the land. 
1906 March 5  Battle of Bud Dajo in Sulu led by Colonel Duncan against the Jolo Muslims. 
1906 April 16  General Tasker Bliss replaced General Leonard Wood as Military Governor of Jolo. 
1907 
1907 Oct. 16 Opening of the Philippine Assembly attended by William Howard Taft, then U.S. Secretary of War. 
1909 
1909  General John Pershing was appointed as Military Governor of Jolo (Sulu) Province 
1913 
1913 June 11  Battle of Bud Bagsak in Sulu led by General Pershing 
1913 Oct 24 Battle of Bud Talipao.

Selected Bibliography:

  1. Foreman, John, The Philippine Islands, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1906
  2. Agoncillo, Theodoro, History of the Filipino People, Garotech Publishing, Quezon City, 1990
  3. Roth, Russel, Muddy Glory: America's 'Indian Wars' in the Philippines,  1899-1935, The Christopher Publishing House, West Hanover, MA, 1981.


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