Disunity During the War
|While the Filipino nationalists (irreconcilables
and the autononists) were debating whether or not to accept
the autnonomy offer of the United States, little did they know that the
Hispanicized Filipino ilustrados (assimilationists) had already
the American occupying forces.
Factionalism: The Second Enemy
Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo
||"It was characteristic of the Filipinos
to split into factions, but the encouragement given to General Antonio
Luna's aspiration to supersede his supreme chief was unfortunate, for Aguinaldo
was not the man to tolerate a rival. He had rid himself of Andres
Bonifacio in 1896, and now another disturber of that unity which is strength
had to be disposed of. The point of dispute between these two men
was of public knowledge."
The Philippine Islands, 1906
of Gen. Antonio Luna, a brave soldier who was appointed as Director of
War before the outbreak of the war. He fought a strong defense against
the American forces commanded by General Lloyd Wheaton in the Battle of
Bagbag/Calumpit. His temperament as a disciplinarian brought him many enemies
within rank and file of the Philippine government and led to his assassination
by men known to be loyal to Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo.
On Bonifacio's Execution:
[In reference to the Bonifacio-Aguinaldo power
struggle during the Katipunan Revolt (1896-1897)]
|"This tragedy [of Bonifacio's execution]
smothered the enthusiasm for the revolutionary cause and hastened the failure
of the insurrection in Cavite, because many from Manila, Laguna, and Batangas
who were fighting for the province [of Cavite] were demoralized and quit,
and soon the so-called central government had to witdraw to the mountains
of Biak-na-Bato in Bulacan…"
Apolinario Mabini, writing in his
memoirs "La Revolucion Filipinas"
Bonifacio, founder of the
Katipunan Society. The Katipunan
sparked the Philippine Revolution on August 1896 in the Cry of Balintawak.
In the Tejeros Convention in March 1897, Bonifacio lost the power to Aguinaldo
as titular head of the newly-formed Revolutionary Government. Refusing
to abide by the humiliating results of the Tejeros Convention, he was tried
and executed for counter-revolutionary activities.
On the Loss of General Luna:
[In reference to the Luna-Aguinaldo power struggle
during the Independence War (1899-1902)]
"The loss of Luna was, of course, a very heavy
blow to our armed efforts…The Luna incident did create such as grave crisis
in both government and military organizations that it was all I could do
to stave off their immediate and complete collapse. Both our Cabinet
and our military command had to be quickly and properly reorganized. I
took tighter control of the Government and personally assumed overall command
of our armed forces. In the midst of this crisis the American forces
further intensified their assaults agaisnt us."
Three Distinct Affiliation Groups
of Filipinos During the War:
Emilio Aguinaldo, in an interview during his later
The Irreconcilables who were die-hard
nationalists who advocated for total Philippine independence without any
compromise. They consisted of Apolinario Mabini and Gen. Antonio
Luna and a handful of other nationalists.
The Autonomists who were moderate nationalists
who advocated limited self-rule under the sovereignty of the United States.
They consisted of Pedro Paterno, Felipe Buencamino and the rest of the
war-time "Peace Cabinet" led by Pedro Paterno.
The Irreconcilable Hardliners
The Collaborators who were the ilustrados
who were more interested in the protection and preservation of their private
properties before loyalty to the cause of independence. While the
nationalists were retreating northward, this group accepted the "Policy
of Attraction" offered by the Americans through appointments to influential
positions and to serve the American-sponsored government in return for
recognition of the American sovereignty. For these officials, their
collaboration were justified among themselves as merely cooperation
with the new colonial administration for the good of the country.
If there is a milder term for collaborators, perhaps they were merely in
favor of "assimiliation" by the Americans, thus describing themselves as
|"Our country is passing through
a critical stage. The loyal Filipinos will have a terrible end. It is not
because the enemy is greater, but because of the corruption and treason
of our countrymen. They hesitated on the way and are selling us for a handful
of Apolinario Mabini, a brilliant lawyer who graduated with a nearly perfect
scholastic records. He was involved with Dr. Jose Rizal's La Liga Filipina
was arrested but was immediately released, the authorities thinking that
a paralytic person would be incapable of revolutionary activities. Upon
Aguinaldo's return from his Hong Kong exile on May 1898, Mabini was summoned
to help him set up an emergency government. Thereupon, Mabini crafted all
Aguinaldo's decrees and proclamations giving legitimacy to Aguinaldo's
revolutionary government. When the war ended, he was exiled to Guam for
his refusal to swear allegiance to the U.S. After writing his memoir "La
Revolucion Filipinas," he was allowed to return to the Philippines
where he finally swore allegiance to the U.S. He was struck by the cholera
epidemic in 1903 at the young age of 39.
"Our arms are our only defense. Once we yield
them we are at the mercy of our conquerors and will have no recourse but
to accept their conditions."
Issues Confronting the Filipinos
During the Independence War (1899-1902)
|Issues that Divided the
Filipinos into Factions
|Course of Action
|Total Philippine independence advocated by Apolinario
Mabini and Gen. Antonio Luna.
||War for Independence
||February 4, 1899 to
July 4, 1902
|Autonomy or limited self-rule under
the sovereignty and protection of the American flag.
A. Paterno, the second President of the Cabinet of the Philippine Republic
who replaced Apolinario Mabini and advocated autonomy. When Gen. Luna vigorously
objected, he was forced to issue a Declaration of War against the United
States on June 2, 1899.
U.S. offer for autonomy acceptable to the Paterno
Gen. Luna vigorously objected autonomy threatening
arrest to all advocates of autonomy.
|Autonomy offer made by U.S. Secretary
of State John Hay on May 5, 1899 through the First U.S. Philippine (Schurman)
Pardo de Tavera, president of the Partido Federal (Federalistas),
the first Philippine political party organized on February 22, 1901, promoted
statehood for the Philippines as its platform. He was one of the
delegates to the Malolos (Revolutionary) Congress that passed the Constitution
of the republic during the Revolutionary Days in 1898.
Negros Constitution establishing the Negros government
under the protection of the American flag;
Ilustrados accepting influential positions
and serving in American-established government while Emilio Aguinaldo's
nationalist forces were retreating northward.
Justice Cayetano Arellano, the first Filipino to be appointed to the highest
official position by the Americans while Aguinaldo was waging the Independence
War. Together with Pardo de Tavera, he was one of
the "Little Brown Brothers" as W.H. Taft would call the newly-colonized
Appointment of Anecito Lacson as Negros
governor on March 1899;
Appointment of Anecito Clarin as Bohol
Governor on April 20, 1901
Appointment of Cayetano Arellano as
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court on May 29, 1899
Dissension Within the Lower Rank:
"…the old element of the revolution and the
new element…are at odds. Luna represents the new element in the revolution.
It is probable that Luna, on account of his sanguinary and arbitrary character
will do damage and oppose the older element of the revolution. That would
give rise to trouble between them and civil war among the revolutionary
Collaboration with the Americans:
Felipe Calderon, an ilustrado lawyer who drafted
of the Constitutionof the Philippine
Republic which was
adopted by the Malolos Congress
"What makes me suffer more than the cruel
sickness which has been shortening my life is seeing some of our countrymen
on the side of the Americans. Many of them are occupying highly paid
jobs shameful for a Filipino to occupy. Under their orders, they send men
to spy on me day and night.:
A Proof of Collaboration
Apolinario Mabini, writing while captivity by the
"On April 17, 1901, Governor W.H. Taft went
to Cebu accompanied by a Filipino, T.H. Pardo de Tavera, whose views were
diametrically opposed to those of the Cebuano majority. "
U.S. Unqualified Support to the
John Foreman, Philippine Islands, page 526
"Following the inauguration of the Taft government,
Taft moved to reward his Fderalista collaborators by persuading Washington
to name Pardo de Tavera, Benito Legarda, and Jose Luzuriaga to the Philippine
"It was characteristic of Taft that he would
continue to stubbornly support his Fderalista collaborators when it was
clear that neither the party nor the "better class" leaders he had picked
for preferment had a political futire in the Philippines. The Hispanicized
"ilustrados" who had organized the party did represent the "better class"
within the Philkippine society, but they had little rapport with most Filipinos.
They accepted status and preferment from Taft and the commission, but they
were helpless to bolster their position by developing a viable political
base within the Filipino society. Defended by Taft in Washington,
they became over time a burdensome anachronism to American administrators
in the Philippines."
Offering No Resistance Against the
"Simultaneously with the prosecution of the
Panay Island campaign, General Miller opened negotiations for the submission
of Negros Islands to American sovereignty…Aniceto Lacson accepted these
terms, and General Miller formally appointed him Governor of the Island
in March 1899. It is evident, therefore, that no union existed between
the local government of Negros and Aguinaldo's Republic in Luzon."
Disunity in Zamboanga
John Foreman, Philippine Islands, pp. 520
"The arrival of an American expidition in the
waters of Zamboanga on November 15, 1899, produced a sanguinary crisis
in these faction fueds. Vicente Alvarez at once took measures to oppose
the invaders' landing, whilst his rival, Isidro Midel, resolved to side
with the Americnas. The want of unity amongst the natives themselves
was a great help to the Americans' plans. By this timethere appeared a
third aspiran to local frame in the person of Melanio Sanson… Each of thses
three individuals sought to rid himslef of his two rivals."
Definiton of Terms:
John Foreman, Philippine Islands, pp 532
Assimilation: the absorption of a minority
group into the main cultural [and political] body.
Collaboration: a person who cooperates with
an enemy invader.
Tests for Collaboration:
Cooperation: the act of working together with
another or others for a common purpose.
The Autonomy Offer That Divided
Was there an enemy?
Did the collaborator consider the U.S. as an enemy?
Did the collaborator believe in the independence
Was the collaborator connected to the independence
cause, directly or indirectly?
"July 5, 1899
"Yours 4th received. You are authorized
to propose that under the military power of the President, pending action
of Congress, government of the Philippine Islands shall consist of a Governor-General
appointed by the President; cabinet appointed by the Governor-General;
a general advisory council elected by the people, the qualifications of
elecltors to be carefully considered and determined; and the governor-general
to have absolute veto. Judiciary strong and independent; principal
judges appointed by the President. The cabinet and judges to be chosen
from natives or Americans, or both, having regard to fitness. The
President earnestly desires the cessation of bloodshed, and that the people
of the Philippine Islands at an early date shall have the largest measure
of local self-government consistent with peace and good order."
Filipinos Killing Filipinos for
the Colonial Masters
"In drafting the Army Reorganization Act of
1901, Congress authorized the enlistment of up to 12,000 Filipinos in special
"scout" units, and within a year 5,000 Filipinos were serving in the Philippine
Scouts. The Scouts were active in suppressing the remnants of the
Filipino-American War and in the establishment of peace in the early years
of commission government. During the twelve years ending with 1913,
Scout losses in action included 127 killed and 170 wounded. Two-thirds
of these casualties occurred in fighting prior to mid-1906, primariuly
in actions against revolutionary guerillas on Luzon and Samar."
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Philippine-American War Centennial