Double-Crosses In Words and In Dids
If the acts and decisions of the U.S. military commanders was for the
best interest of their country, they were considered as betrayal of trust
as well as "double-cross" by the Filipinos who considered the Americans
their allies from the time their forces first set foot in the islands.
These double-crosses were manifested in words and in dids in many specific
occasions, such as:
While the Filipinos cooperated with the Americans in the Battle of Manila, they were blinded by the fact that the battle was set to be a mock and prearranged one -to save the Spaniards from humiliating defeat in the hands of the Filipino forces. The mock battle would also avoid possible court martial of their commanders in Madrid for easily capitulating to the Americans. After the Battle of Manila, McKinley ordered Gen. Merritt and Commodore Dewey, which stated:
The Filipinos were excluded in the victory celebrations, thus robbed of the glory of the victory!
At the height of the Independence War, the Americans signed a treaty of friendship with the Sultan of Jolo in August 1899 with the hope of preventing the Moro people from joining with the Christian forces of Aguinaldo. When the Christian Filipinos were defeated and subjugated, the U.S. unilaterally abrogated the Bates Treaty and turned their forces against the Muslim Filipinos.
The U.S.-Filipino alliance to defeat the Spaniards in the Philippines was a known fact among the members of the U.S. military and diplomatic circles. But when the policy makers in Washington changed their minds on the "Philippine issue" and asserted their imperialistic interest,, it became expedient to deny the existence of the U.S.-Filipino alliance.
This denial was officially recorded in the U.S. senate hearings when Admiral Dewey stated:
|Double-cross in the Christian land:|
Insensitive to the wounded pride of the Filipinos, General Merritt added insult by saying:
"We purposely gave the insurgents no notice of the attack on Manila, because we did not need their cooperation."
a larger image.
|An editorial cartoon
from Chicago Journal titled:
"Puzzle Picture -Find the Governor of the Philippines"
depicting U.S. General Wesley Merritt and Commodore George Dewey smoking and sitting on top of Emilio Aguinaldo, who is wearing a crown, on Luzon.
Double-crosses in the Morolands:
|Link to Articles written by Lela
|TO TOP OF PAGE||TO HOME PAGE|