Continuing Independence War

Death comes to all of us sooner or later, so I will face the Lord Almighty calmly. But I want to tell you that we are not bandits and robbers, as the Americans have accused us, but members of the revolutionary force that defended our mother country, Filipinas! Farewell! Long live the republic and may our independence be born in the future! Farewell! Long live Filipinas!

The Continuing War waged by Filipinos against the American colonizers pertains to the Independence War, the momentum from its intensity carried many of the Filipinos to continue their struggle, even after Aguinaldo had already surrendered and pledged his allegiance to the U.S. Many of them were veterans of the Philippine Revolution against Spain and have tasted and enjoyed their freedom of military command. Carried also by their hatred against their former colonizer Spain, these freedom fighters were distrustful of the unproven colonial policies of the Americans. To them the war had not ended and surrender to the Americans never came to their minds. Instead, they were confronted by the following questions:

"What's the difference between the two colonizers: 

  • the Spaniards bearing a "bible on one hand, cross on the other", and

  • the Americans bearing "books on one hand, krag on the other?" 
The only difference, of course, is the modern weapons and the military training of the Americans. The effect of modern weapons is obvious when it completely pacified the Moro people, a feat that could not be done by the Spaniards after its centuries of colonization. To the Filipino masses in general, however, they looked upon their wars against the Americans in many ways, such as:

For the Christian Filipinos:

1.  As a continuing struggle for independence which started during the Katipunan Revolutionary days.
2.  Resistance against colonialism distrustful to the benevolnet assimilation policies of the new colonizers.

For the Muslim Filipinos:

1.  As a resistance against changing their Koran-based cultural and religious ways of life.
2.  Imposition of poll tax by the Americans, in which paying of taxes was not their economic tradition;
3.  Ancient traditional resistance and hatred to foreign powers starting during the Spanish colonial days when many attempts were made to subjugate them with the aid of Christian Filipinos allies.

The Continuing Independence War was a natural momentum for the freedom fighters who cherished freedom and have earned it. But the victors did not share their sentiment because the American colonizers considered these resistance as bandolerismo or plain act of banditry of the same category as the Civil War's infamous William Quantrill raiding band.

      • PAWCI

List of Outlawed Guerillas
[Research in progess, our apology! -PAWCI]
Name War Accomplishment Date Sentenced/Executed
Gen. Luciano San Miguel General of the 1896 Philippine Revolution serving under the Magdiwang faction of Aguinaldo.  He was the commanding officer in the battle front at the ourbreak of the Independence War. March 27, 1903. Killed at the Battle of Corral-na-Bato against Macabebe Scouts led by Lt. Nickersen
Gen. Macario Leon Sakay, alias "Dapitan"   Hanged at Bilibid on September 13, 1907
Col. Lucio de Vega    
Gen. Julian Santos    
Julian Montalan    
Faustino Guillermo   Hanged in Pasig in 1904

Chronology of Post-Independence War Resistance
[Research in progress, our apology! -PAWCI]
Date Event
1901 Sedition Law passed by Philippine Commission
November 1902  Bandolerismo Act passed by the Philippine Commission



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 Philippine-American War Centennial Initiative (P.A.W.C.I.)