Voices of Imperialism and War
Philippines: A Gift from the Gods
would like to say just a word about the Philippine business. . .The truth
is I don't want the Philippines, and when they came to us as a gift from
the gods, I did not know what to do with them. . ."
"The Philippines are ours as much as Louisiana
by purchase, or Texas or Alaska."
William McKinley, explaining to a visiting
"I am not ashamed to tell you, Gentlemen,
that I went down on my knees and prayed Almighty God for light and guidance
that one night. And one night later it came to me this way...There was
nothing left for us to do but to take them all and to educate the Filipinos
and uplift and civilize and Christianize them, and by God's grace do the
very best we could by them, as our fellow me for whom Christ also died."
Mc Kinley, telling a team of peace negotiators in
a send-off dinner before departing for Paris, France
[ Note: William McKinley, a
Republican, the 25th U.S. President, serving from 1897 to 1901. McKinley
was hesitant on the Philippine issue at the beginning on moral and Constitutional
grounds but was carried by the imperialist mood of the time. Thus,
he favored the total annexation of the Philippine archipelago and called
for a Philippine colonial policy of benevolent assimilation after
the signing of the Treaty of Paris on December 10, 1898. McKinley
was assassinated in 1901, and was succeeded by his Vice President, Theodore
of U.S. Philippine Involvement
have taken possession of the naval station at Cavite, Philippine Islands,
and destroyed its fortifications. . .I control the bay completely and can
take city at any time, but I have not sufficient men to hold. . ."
[ Note: Commodore Dewey commanded the
U.S. Asiatic Fleet at the outbreak of the Spanish-American War in 1898.
He destroyed the Spanish fleet commanded by Admiral Patricio Montojo in
the Battle of Manila Bay on May 1, 1898. During the initial days
of American involvement in the Philippines, Dewey established collaborative
relationship with Emilio Aguinaldo but later denied it during the Senate
hearings after the war.]
Commodore George Dewey, in a cable to Washington,
May 4, 1898
Start of Filipino-American Rift
purposely gave the insurgents no notice of the attack on Manila, because
we did not need their cooperation. We were moved by the fear that they
might loot, plunder, and possibly murder. Aguinaldo's men and subordinate
leaders in conversing with the American officers would frequently say that
they intended to cut the throats of all the Spaniards in Manila."
forces, quoted by London Morning
Post , 1898.
Major-General Wesley Merritt, commander of U.S. expeditionary
[ Note: General Wesley Merritt
served briefly as the first Military-Governor of the Philippines. He was
a veteran of the Civil War and the western Indian campaigns. After the
Protocol of Peace was signed, Merritt left for Paris to serve as military
adviser to the U.S. peace commissioners.]
Search of New Frontier
pretend that the American army was solely responsible for the so-called
conquest of Manila and Cavite, and to refuse the Filipino troops their
share of that work is mean and unfair, and is not the truth."
[ Note: Felipe Agoncillo was the Philippine
envoy to Europe during the pre-war days. He visited President McKinley
on October 1, 1898 when the U.S.-Spain peace commission was negotiating
for a treaty to lobby for Philippine independence but was turned down by
McKinley. When the Treaty of Paris was signed Agoncillo returned to the
U.S. to observe the U.S. Senate debate on the treaty ratification for Aguinaldo.
He fled to Canada after the outbreak of the war to escape the blame unfairly
put on him that he cabled Aguinaldo advising him to start the war in order
to derail the treaty ratification process.]
fear of Filipino revenge against the Spaniards
Felipe Agoncillo, in a reply to General Merritt's
"Proponents of expansion had hailed
the islands as America's 'new frontier,' and appropriately enough, the
men who conquered the Philippines, particularly the volunteers, brought
with them a frontier spirit steeped in an individualism that easily degenerated
into lawlessness. Virtually every member of the high command had spent
most of his career terrorizing Apaches, Comanches, Kiowas, and the Sioux.
Some had taken part in the massacre at Wounded Knee. It was easy for such
commanders to order similar tactics in the Philippines, particularly when
faced with the frustrations of guerrilla warfare. And the men in their
command, many of whom were themselves descendants of old Indian fighters,
carried out these orders with amazing, if not surprising, alacrity."
Stuart C. Miller, in his book Benevolent Assimilation
Movement Starts in San Francisco, CA
|"Damn, damn, damn the Filipinos!
Cut-throat Khadiac ladrones!
Underneath the starry flag
Civilize them with a Krag
And return us to our beloved home."
showing the 51st Iowa Volunteer Infantry Regiment marching through the
Lombard Street gate at the Presidio in San Francisco, California, in 1898
on their way to embark in a troop transport for a 30-day voyage to Manila.
[Note: Click thumbnail photo to view larger photo]
Old Glory and Country
"I am probably growing hard-hearted, for I am
in my glory when I can sight my gun on some dark-skin and pull the trigger.
. . Tell all my inquiring friends that I am doing everything I can for
Old Glory and for American I love so well."
A. A. Barnes, Third Artillery, describing the destruction
of Titatia, Batangas.
Call It "A Route"
at left: Mass graves for the "uncivilized" — dead Filipino soldiers
after fighting broke out in Manila suburbs on February 4, 1899.
|"Impossible to embalm and ship
bodies now. Experiment failure; weather warm, decomposition rapid. Process
of embalming immediately after death unsuccessful. Of twelve bodies already
sent to U.S., doubtful if some reach port."
General Elwell Otis, in a cable to Adjutant General
at left: Decent burial for the Americans — U.S. soldiers buried at
Battery Knoll Cemetery in Manila. The photo was taken on Memorial Day —
May 30, 1899 — only four months after fighting began. There would be many
more deaths before the war would end.
"The capability of the Filipino for
self-government cannot be doubted. Such men as Arellano, Aguinaldo, and
many others whom I might name are highly educated, nine-tenths of the people
read and write, all are skilled artisans in one way or another; they are
industrious, frugal, temperate, and given a fair start, could look out
for themselves, infinitely better than our people imagine. In my opinion
they rank far higher than the Cubans of the uneducated Negroes to whom
we have given the right of suffrage."
of the Enemy
into account the disadvantages thay [Filipinos] have to fight against in
arms, equipment and military discipline, without artillery, short of ammunition,
powder inferior, shells reloaded until they are defective. . .they are
the bravest men I have ever seen. . .These men are indomitable."
[ Note: Brigadier General Henry W.
Lawton was the highest-ranked U.S. casualty of the Philippine-American
War. He won a Medal of Honor in the Civil War, and gained additonal fame
when he captured the American Indian chief Geronimo. During the American
occupation of Cuba, after the Spanish-Wamerican War, he was became the
military governor of Santiago, Cuba, prior to his Philippine assignment.
He was killed in the town of San Mateo on December 19, 1899, the first
major causualty of guerilla warfare.]
Brigadier General Henry W. Lawton
[Filipinos] need the training of fifty or a hundred years before they shall
even realize what Anglo-Saxon liberty is."
"There are not in these islands more than six
or seven thousand men who have any education that deserves the name — most
of them intriguing politicians, without slightest moral stamina and motivated
only by personal interests."
"They are an Oriental people, and the Oriental
believes in saying to the person with whom he is talking what the person
would like to hear. That is the tendency of the race."
[ Note: William Howard Taft, a judge
from Cincinnati, Ohio, was the first U.S. civilian governor of the Philippines.
He strongly influenced American colonial policy including the appointment
of his "little brown brothers" in government positions while Emilio Aguinaldo
was waging guerrilla warfare against the Americans. This photo shows a
325-pound Taft riding a carabao , a Filipino water buffalo.]
William Howard Taft, Civil Governor of the Philippines
"Little Brown Brothers"
"They say I've got brown brothers here,
but still I draw the line.
He may be a brother of Big Bill Taft,
But he ain't no brother of mine."
A ditty from an anonymous American soldier
"Our 'little brown brother,' the Filipino pure
and simple, whom we are so anxious to uplift to his proper plane upon earth
and relieve from the burden cast upon him by heredity and a few hundred
years of Spanish domination, is without doubt unreliable, untrustworthy,
ignorant, vicious, immoral, and lazy. . .tricky, and, as a race more dishonest
than any known race on the face of the earth."
Charles Ballantine, Associated Press
First American Teachers: The Thomasites
"We are not merely teachers. We are social
assets and emissaries of goodwill."
Philinda Rand, August 21, 1901
"What are you coons doing here?"
White American soldier asking a member of the "Colored
"To take up the white man's burden."
"The White Man's Burden" composed by Rudyard
A black soldier replying, in reference to the poem
|[ Note: Known as the
"Buffalo Soldiers," they served in the Spanish-American War and the Philippine-American
War, in segregated regiments. Some 12,000 Buffalo Soldiers served during
the Philippine-American War.]
"The country won't be pacified until the niggers
are killed off like Indians."
"I hardly think that I was born to be killed by
A Kansas regiment veteran
"The boys go for the enemy as they were chasing
jack-rabbits. I, for one, hope that Uncle Sam will apply the chastening
rod, good, hard, and plenty, and lay it on until they [Filipinos] come
into the reservation and promise to be good 'injuns'."
Colonel Frederick Funston
"We have come as a Christian people to relieve
them from the Spanish yoke and bear ourselves like barbarians."
Sheriffs and Executioners
"Our soldiers here and there resort to horrible
measures with the natives. Captains and lieutenants are sometimes judges,
sheriffs, and executioners. 'I don't want any more prisoners sent into
Manila,' was the verbal order from the Governor-General three months ago.
It is now the custom to avenge the death of an American soldier by burning
to the ground all the houses, and killing right and left the natives who
are only 'suspects.' "
"You see sights you could hardly believe,
and life is hardly worth a thought. I have seen a shell from our artillery
strike a bunch of Filipinos, and then they would go scattering through
the air, arms, heads, all disconnected. And such sights actually make our
boys laugh and yell, 'that shot was a peach'. A white man seems to forget
that he is human."
Charles Wyland, Washington Regiment
Mental Toll of the War
"That night there were several strange scenes
that must have given the natives a strange idea of the civilization we
wish to foist on them. Drunken men struck at each other in frenzy and smashed
each other's heads on the ground, with sickening oaths, for no reason whatsoever,
except their own distorted imagination."
Soldier's Disappointment in One's Country
"I am disappointed in the United States, but
it is still my country. I am sure the American people will see the right
thing to do sooner or later. I only hope they see it in time."
wisdom and legitimacy of the independence
Lieutenant Samuel Powell Lyon, his doubts about the
"We have to kill one or two every night."
January 17, 1899, when the war was weeks
Private William Christiner, in a letter to his father,
"In substantially every case the report [of
cruelty] has proved to be either unfounded or grossly exaggerated."
Elihu Root, Secretary of War
"We struck through the grass as high as a
man's head until both platoons had flattened them. We opened fire and killed
all but one. They were unarmed."
mission against a harmless fishing village,
during the late 1960s
A Samar battalion veteran describing his own "search
". . .since the victim has it in his own power
to stop the process, or prevent it altogether before the operation has
gone far enough to seriously hurt him, it [the 'water-cure'] cannot be
Atrocities Compared to Other Countries
"All you say about the Philippines, the conflict
there between the Americans, military and civil, and the pig-headedness
of the military and their habits of setting 'bulldogs to catch rabbits'
is immensely cheering to me, because it is precisely what we are doing
in South Africa."
against the Boers, wrote the editor of the
Rudyard Kipling, disillusioned over the atrocities
of the British Soldiers
"When pursued too closely they hide their rifles
and scatter to their homes, and no longer wear uniforms or any distinctive
insignia but use the dress of noncombatants of the country."
the difficulties in "exterminating the enemy"
General Frederick Funston, conceding that he had
". . .they (guerrillas) seldom wore uniforms,
disappearing and hiding their guns when hotly pursued, and reappearing
as non-combatant peasants interrupted in agricultural pursuits, with invariable
protestations of friendship. Hence, all such came to be known as 'amigos'
and the 'amigo,' or friend, became a bitter by-word, meaning to all American
soldiers throughout the archipelago an enemy falsely claiming to be a friend.
And every Filipino was an 'amigo.' "
James H. Blount, writer-historian
"The situation is not miitary, for the reason
tht these people will not fight soldiers except in small detachments, and
when taken at great advantage. When we patrol their barrios, they greet
us in the guise of peaceful laborers. We are confronted by an organized
secret conspiracy, comprising large numbers of war rebels, robbers, and
rag tag army."
"The undeclared war in the Philippines has
now been nearly twice as long as the war with Spain. The Filipinos, without
effective artillery and lack of military form, have proved their touch
and common feeling with all people who are fighting for the soil they were
born on and for independence and self-government against an invading host."
[ Note: Many of the Filipino soldiers
were barefooted, armed with old German-made rifles and U.S.-made Remingtons
mostly captured from the Spaniards in a preceding revolution. The Filipinos
may have outnumbered the Americans but only one out of four had rifles,
the rest carried bolo knives.]
"These fellow can't shoot! As long as they aim
at us, we are all right."
Lieutenant Charles Kilbourne
[ Note: This is partly true when some
Filipinos, due to lack of training and knowledge on the technical value
of the rear guns sights, removed them from their guns to concentrate on
the front sights.]
Dreaded Mercenaries of the War
"I am king of the Macabebes and they are terrors.
Word reaches a place that the Macabebes are coming and every Tagalog hunts
mercenaries composed of Macabebe tribesmen.
Major Mathew Batson, first commander of the
||Macabebe Scouts with
long hair captured by the forces of Emilio Aguinaldo during the revolutionary
||Macabebe scouts in formation
and completely armed with Krag rifles, serving the U.S. Army as mercenaries
during the independence war.
[ Note: The Macabebes had strong
warrior traditions and had loyally served Spain in her suppression of the
earlier insurrection; they had asked Madrid to relocate their village in
the Carolines should the Filipinos win independence.]
to Country and Commander
"The General [Aguinaldo] has given me the pick
of all the men that can be spared and ordered me to defend the Pass. I
realize what a terrible task has been given me. And yet I feel that this
is the most glorious moment of my life. What I do is done for my beloved
country. No sacrifice can be too great."
[ Note: The "Boy General," as he was
known during the war, was Emilio Aguinaldo's best friend and constant companion.
Together with General Manuel Tinio, del Pilar accompanied Aguinaldo to
Hong Kong in his exile in compliance to the Biak-na-Bato Truce. With a
handful of brave men he fought a delaying tactic at Tirad Pass to slow
down the Americans who were relentlessly pursuing Aguinaldo's party.]
to the Battle of Tirad Pass, where he died
at age 24.
General Gregorio del Pilar, in his last entry to
his diary prior
"He [Aguinaldo] owed to the men of Generals
del Pilar and [Manuel] Tinio, for this same breed of fighters who heroically
and ably foiled the great manhunt of 1899 again saved Aguinaldo for a second
time in 1900. But he owed it more to the Ilocano fighters of the Tinio
Brigade, without whose presence in the North, Aguinaldo's 'odyssey' would
have been nothing but a death march."
Resistance in the Ilocos Provinces 1899-1901
Orlino Ochosa, in his book The Tinio Brigade:
[ Note: General Tinio was another
Tagalog "boy" general of the Filipino forces who commanded the "Tinio Brigade"
in the Ilocos region. He was only 21 years old when General del Pilar was
killed at the Battle of Tirad Pass thereupon compelling himself to assume
the rear guard command. Through his illusive guerrilla warfare he slowed
down the Americans in their manhunt for General Emilio Aguinaldo thus extending
Aguinaldo's "odyssey." After Aguinaldo was caught Tinio surrendered to
General Bell and became the first governor of Nueva Ecija during the colonial
Booty: As Ancient As War Itself
Souvenir Hunting (from the enemy's
"When [General Gregorio] del Pilar's body was
found, American soldiers stripped it of every bit of clothing, took the
rings from the fingers and a locket from the neck. Not a stitch of any
kind was left on the body, everything being taken for souvenirs. For two
days the body was left by the roadside unburied, until its odor was offensive,
until some (natives) were ordered to cover it with dirt."
the Standards of Warfare
"Since the Filipinos began it, we must follow
and lower ourselves to their level."
Evening Post , in an editorial
"Dissension at home became more disagreeable than
fighting the Filipinos. The Spirit of America became sour."
Soldier Staining his Good War Records
Andrew S. Rowan, of the 19th Infantry, distinguished himself as a
secret agent of the War Department in collecting information concerning
Cuba and the insurgents. In various disguises he penetrated the island
to the headquarters of General Calixto Garcia and delivered a message to
the Cuban leader from General Nelson Miles.
After his assignment in Cuba, Captain Rowan was
transferred to the Philippines and saw action in the island of Bohol where
he was confronted with heavy guerrilla activities. An article in the New
York Times :
"Captain Andrew Rowan of the 19th Infantry
is under investigation for the destruction of a town and thereby causing
an active renewal of the insurrection in the island of Bohol. A native
who had assassinated a corporal was caught and killed. Captain Rowan then
burned an adjacent town and the people, inflamed with rage, rejoined the
insurgent chief, Samson."
Impression that War is Winding Down
"It looks good on paper, but there really has
been no reduction of the force here. These battalions [being sent home]
are made up of men about to be discharged."
A Lieutenant explaining in a letter to his wife.
small insignificant looking man, very much like a Jap in appearance. He
hasn't much to say by the influence he has over the natives and their devotion
to him impressed me with his power over them."
Lieutenant Frederick Sladen, aide to General Elwell
I started in against these rebels, I believed that Aguinaldo's troops represented
only a faction. I did not like to believe that the whole population of
Luzon — the native population that is — was opposed to us and our offers
for aid and good government. But after having come this far, after having
occupied several towns and cities in succession, and having been brought
much into contact with both insurrectos and amigos, I have been reluctantly
compelled to believe that the Filipino masses are loyal to Aguinaldo and
the government which he leads."
[ Note: General Arthur MacArthur was
the last overall military commander to serve the Philippines with vast
powers. He was the father of General Douglas MacArthur. His rift with William
Howard Taft during his Philippine days prevented MacArthur from being promoted
to Chief of Staff.]
"All correspondents here satisfied with present
"The censorship has compelled us to participate
in this misrepresentation by excising or altering uncontroverted statements
of facts on the plea that 'they should alarm the people at home," or 'have
the people of the United States by the ears."
autocratic and arbitrary management of the
New correspondents' protest against military governor's
"Every fight become a glorious American victory
and we were drilled into writing, quite mechanically, wholly ridiculous
estimates of the numbers of Filipinos killed."
Mr. Collins, a news correspondent
Military Rule for Filipinos
"Filipinos 'are incapable of gratitude, profligate,
undependable, improvident, cruel, impertinent, superstitious, and treacherous
all are liars even in the confessional.' Granting such people constitutional
rights would be 'a reductio ad absurdum,' and military rule was the only
Theodore Woolsey, Yale law professor
Over Aguinaldo's Capture
Gen. Funston's Methods Used to Capture
[In reference to the Hague Conference of 1899]
"When the capture of Aguinaldo by Funston was
announced by cable, it was hailed as a great exploit. President William
McKinley lost no time in making him a brigadier-general. But, as the details
have to come to light, contempt and disgust have taken the place of admiration.
The American people accepted, though not without some qualms of conscience,
the forgery, treachery, and disguise with which Funston prepared his expedition.
But until recently the full infamy of his conduct has not been understood.
The historian of his expedition, Edwin Wildman, thus describes the last
stage of Funston march:
'Over the stony declivities and through the thick
jungle, across bridgeless streams and up narrow passes the footsore and
bone-racked adventures tramped, until their food was exhausted and they
were too weak to move, though eight miles from Aguinaldo's rendezvous.
A messenger was sent forward to inform Aguinaldo of their position and
to beg for food. The rebel chieftain promptly replied by dispatching rice
and a letter to the other officer in command, instructing him to treat
the American prisoners well.'
"The incident was passed over lightly in the earlier
reports. Its significance has just begun to dawn upon the American people."
Boston Post , Editorial, May 1902
"Funston's plan was well within the traditional
'ruses of war' that are 'as old as warfare itself.' As long as thegeneral
'did not break faith,' the forged documents and letters were acceptable
since the United States was not at war 'with a civilized power,'and since
the Aguinaldo party was not a signatory of the Hague Convention there was
no obligation on the part of the United States to refrain from using the
enemy's uniforms for the enemy's deception."
photo shows Funston in the uniform of the Cuban Insurgent Army. He enlisted
with the Cuban insurgents and went to Cuba in 1896, his first military
service. Funston won a Congressional Medal for heroism in the Battle of
Bagbag/Calumpit against the Filipino forces led by General Antonio Luna,
and promotion to Brigadier-General.]
Professor Theodore Woolsey, Yale expert on international
Opposing Funston's Methods
"Nothing more than a part of a lawless warfare
being carried out under MacArthur's command."
to Aguinaldo's Swearing of Allegiance to the U.S
"Few professional traders in patriotism have
more successfully marketed their wares."
"The bombastic, puerile, fawning, insincere statement
of an opportunist in bad plight."
to the Balangiga Massacre
Brigadier General Jacob "Howling
Jake" Smith (wearing black boots) stands in front, second from right. Frederick
Funston stands at far left of photo. General Arthur MacArthur (wearing
white hat) stands in front between Funston and Smith.
"I want no prisoners, I wish you to
kill and burn, the more you kill and burn the better it will please me.
I want all persons killed who are capable of bearing arms [ten years of
age and above] in actual hostilities against the United States."
General Jacob Smith, order to Major Littleton
"The interior of Samar must be made a howling
[ Note: Jacob Smith was later court-martialed.
Prior to the Philippine-American War, he was at the Wounded Knee massacre
of the Sioux in 1890.]
"Porter, I've had instructions to kill everyone
over ten years old. But we are not making war on women and children, only
on men capable of bearing arms. Keep that in mind no matter what orders
Major Littleton "Tony" Waller, to a fellow-officer
Hegemony of the Ilustrados
Consequence of War
". . .it is an inevitable consequence of war
that the innocent must generally suffer with the guilty . . . a short and
severe war creates in the aggregate less loss and suffering than a benevolent
war indefinitely prolonged."
"Severely punish, in the same manner or lesser
degree, the commission of acts denounced in the aforementioned articles."
General Franklin Bell, in his order to his subordinates
his own interpretation of the Adjutant
General's General Order 100
Violations of Civilized Rules of
[General Franklin Bell's interpretation of General
Orders No. 100, Adjutant-General's Office, 1863, as if the Filipinos knew
Section 26. Deceiving American officials and
treacherously aiding and assisting the cause of the insurrection.
Section 63. The wearing of civilian clothes
with no specific markings by the ordinary peasant, and returning home between
battles and divesting themselves of the character and appearance of soldiers
concealing their arms posing as peaceful citizens.
Other violations: cutting telephone lines,
constructing traps, etc.
Reconcentrados in Batangas Campaign
"The word 'reconcentrado' has had an ugly sound
in American ears, the hardship to the Filipinos of Batangas is not the
mere leaving their homes, which are structures of straw and branches, only
a little more elaborate that Indian wigwams. They can endure that, and
perhaps profit by compulsory removal from abodes that long use and neglect
have made unwholesome."
"The entire population outside of the major sites
in Batangas was herded into concentration camps, which were bordered by
what Bell called 'dead lines.' Everything outside of the camps was systematically
destroyed — humans, crops, food stores, domestic animals, houses and boats."
Stuart C. Miller, in his book Benevolent Assimilation
[J. Franklin] Bell does not propose to starve these people as Weyler did
in the Cuban 'reconcentrados.' To propose that he does is an insult to
a brave and honorable American soldier."
[ Note: General Bell was the "Butcher
of Batangas," the U.S. equivalent of Spanish General Valeriano Weyler in
"The landowning ilustrado community, embodied
by Pedro Paterno, Felipe Calderon, Benito Legarda, and Felipe Buencamino,
established legislative hegemony over the executive coalition of Aguinaldo
and Mabini. The radical goals disappeared as private property was guaranteed,
and as the suffrage was limited to men of higher character, social position,
and honorable conduct. Eighty of the 136 delegates were trained professionals
(43 were lawyers). The government was inaugurated in 21 January 1899, was
dominated by conservative ilustrados ."
Won the War?
By 1908, even Taft found it necessary to assuage
his conscience by voicing some concern over the ilustrado oligarchy that
he had partially fostered. He reassured himself, however, that the American-sponsored
educational system would eventually broaden the base of democracy in the
Philippines. Instead, it expanded the oligarchy as it absorbed the newly
rich and educated, not only to emasculate any potential challenge, but
also to fill the need for an expanding political and economic leadership.
Taft also understood that one way to quell the
rebellion was to make its former leaders government officials, such as
the president of the municipality of the governor of a province. Voting
restrictions and indirect elections favored the more conservative ilustrado
elite, which soon dominated the emerging government as it once had the
Philippine Republic under Aguinaldo.
Significantly, Rizal emerged as the untarnished
national hero, not Aguinaldo, Aglipay, or the radical ilustrado, Mabini,
all of whom were relegated to oblivion except for ceremonial occasions
or when needed to serve the oligarchy's purposes. The Roman Catholic Church
returned to a dominant position, and English replaced Spanish as the nearly
universal medium of communication to bind together the many disparate groups
in the islands, In short, this ilustrado elite had clearly defeated Mabini's
Stuart Miller in his book Benevolent Assimilation
Jose Rizal, an ilustrado patriot, national hero of the Philippines.
He was blamed for masterminding the Katipunan Revolt in 1896 and
was executed by the Spaniards. In actuality, Rizal favored assimilation
through education and political reforms.
Bishop Gregorio Aglipay, who fought for the emancipation of the Filipino
clergy founded the Philippine Independent Church as a result of religious
schism dating back to the Revolutionary days in 1898. He led a guerrilla
group and fought against the Americans in the Ilocos region.
1] Miller, Stuart C., Benevolent Assimilation
Yale University, New Haven, 1982
2] Wolff, Leon, Little Brown Brother ,
Oxford University Press, New York, 1991
3] Karnow, Stanley, In Our Image , Ballantine
Books, New York, 1989
[This book won the Pulitzer prize.]
4] Agoncillo, Teodoro A., History of the Filipino
People , Garotech Publishing, Quezon City, RP, 1990
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